History and La Libertad's geography
And l northern department of the Freedom was seat of the cultures pre Mochica Incas (200 years a.C.-700 d.C.) and Chimú (1300 d.C. -1460 d.C The Moche society (it was the name of the village language) has called the attention by its artistic expressions (huacos pictures); the complicated decorations in its ceramics; the wealth goldsmith of its tombs; and its voluminous architecture (the Huacas of the Sun and the Moon). They also made admirable works of irrigated land, like the aqueducts of Ascope and the Summit (in present operation with a cover of 113 kilometers), and used like fertilizers the guano of the islands, which helped them to reach an advanced agricultural development. The Chimú kingdom whose dominion extended from You fall down to I knew, it assumed the rich legacy of the Mochica culture and it had like capital to Chan Chan (Sun Sun the city of greater mud of the antiquity. They were eximios goldsmiths of old Peru and great part of the treasure taken to Spain (necklaces, bracelets, diademas, pectoral, ceremonial gold masks, glasses, knives, silver and receive) came from this town. The Chimú kingdom it was put under the incanato voluntarily, thus it was respected and considered his ally.
Freedom, was founded on 1534 by the conqueror Diego de Almagro and it became the administrative capital of the north of the Virreinato of Peru. During century XVIII, due to the numerous attacks of pirates walls, until today visible rose. The 23 of November of 1537, the King of Spain, Carlos V gave the title him of City, by means of Real Certificate in Villa of Valladolid. The 29 of December of 1820 the town of Trujillo met in the seat of arms and the Marquess of Tagle Tower proclaimed the independence of Peru. Trujillo was the first city of the north of the Peru that proclaimed its independence the 29 of December of 1820. From the Freedom they divided the campaigns of the Bolivars, who decided in the battles of Junín and Ayacucho the independence of Peru.
And l department of the Freedom was created by provincial regulation of the 12 of February of 1821, with the name of Trujillo, integrated by the provinces of Trujillo, Cajamarca, Chachapoyas Lambayeque, Huamachuco Pataz and Piura. By decree of the 31 of January of 1822, one occurred to its capital, the city of Trujillo, the name of bemérita and fidelísima to the mother country and its town hall "the honorable dictation and". The decree of the 9 of March of 1825 changed to the name of the department giving him the one of "the Freedom" and to its capital the denomination of "city of Bolivar "; by law of the 21 of Julio of 1827 the name of the Trujillos was restituted to the capital. Of this department the departments of Amazon have formed, Cajamarca, Lambayeque and Piura. We must indicate that later to the execution of the 1981 census, were created until before the National Census of 1993, the provinces of Ascope by law 23845 of the month of June of 1984, in September of the same year the province of Chepén by law 23910, and year 1990 in the month of June, by law 25261 the Province of Julcán is created . Also 5 districts were created: Florence de Mora by law 24316 in September of 1985. Santiago de Challas by law 24693 in June of 1987 and the districts of Calamarca Carabamba and Huaso by law 25261 in June of 1990. Later to the execution of the Census, the provinces of Great Chimú were created and Virú by means of laws 26398 of the 6 of January of 1994 and 26647 of the 5 of January of 1995 respectively.
History and Trujillo's geography
Trujillo is a friendly and colonial city, which is at the same time one of the main economic and cultural centers of northern Peru. What is more, it is the capital of the marinera dance and Peruvian El Paso horse breeding. It was the center of the Chimú culture (1100-1400 AD), whose Chan Chan citadel is the largest pre-Hispanic mud-brick construction in the Americas.
Trujillo was founded in 1534 as one of the main cities in the vice-regency. The old quarter features many fine colonial buildings such as the Cathedral, the El Carmen monastery, churches and mansions which symbolize the beauty and architectural harmony of the city.
On the city's outskirts, visitors can take in an older style of architecture, where the remains of a pre-Hispanic civilization still rear above the green fields and desert sands. The Chan Chan citadel, the El Brujo complex and the temples of the Sun, the Moon and the Dragon, amongst others, are evidence of highly advanced northern civilizations.
Beaches near Trujillo are ideal for visitors, not just because of the superb local seafood, fresh caught, or the cool sea breeze, but also for the opportunities to be had for adventure sports and contact with tradition. Huanchaco is a picturesque fishing cove where one can find the ancient craft that appeared on Mochica pottery and on friezes at Chan Chan: the caballitos de totora, rafts woven from the totora reed in an art that has been handed down over generations. Similar skill is shown by the surfing crowd, which year after year gather in the port of Malabrigo, where a surfing championship is staged every March. The local beaches feature the world's longest waves.
But above all, Trujillo is the land of the marinera, and the townspeople hold the National Marinera Contest every March, In September, the streets and houses are festooned with decorations to receive a procession of floats, competitions and parties. This is the International Spring Festival, which celebrates the arrival of spring in Peru.
Province of Trujillo
The Main Square
Like a traditional Spanish city, the Cathedral or Main Church, the City Hall, the offices of the "Universidad Nacional de Trujillo" (f. in 1824), and beautiful buildings like the house of the families "Urquiaga y Bracamonte" and the Hotel "El Libertador" surrounds the Main Square and represent the beauty of the colonial architecture.
Built between 1647 and 1666, and rebuilt between 1768 to 1781. It presents a beautiful decoration in its interior and colonial paintings, stores a valuable choir seat, altarpieces of Baroque and Rococo styles. It has a Museum of Religious Art with exhibition of paintings and sculptures.
Church of Bethlehem
Constructed by the Bethlemitas parents, they emphasize its facade with images of San jOse, the Virgin and the Boy. Account with a beautiful púlpito in target and gold with efigies of the doctors of the Church. Guard valuable paintings of the Presentation and the Circunsición.
Square of the Recreation
Traditional Trujillana seat decorated with leafy ficus. To the center it has a marble battery of Carabamba (Otuzco) that, until 1925, it was in the Greater Seat.
Church and Convent Carmen
Considered the most important in the city, possesses a beautiful collection of paintings. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 1759, survived the biggest altarpiece and the paintings. Their main altar is a masterwork with a beautiful golden altarpiece, made by Fernando Collado de la Cruz (1759); images of high artistic quality.
Church of San Agustín
That dates from century XVII, counts on a greater golden wood altar and a beautiful púlpito of baroque style.
San Francisco Church
It possesses a rich collection of altarpieces with beautiful design, carved, golden and colored relieves. San Francisco Solano preached from the Renaissance pulpit that at the moment is conserved in excellent conditions.
La Merced Church
Church with a flat front and perpendicular to the old convent in which took place the Court of Justice. Their main altarpiece comes from the "Iglesia de la Compañía", in which outstand the colored relieves of the arched roof and the only organ of "Rococo" style of Trujillo.
This bright yellow mansion, an excellent example of neoclassical civil architecture that dates to the 19th century, is home to the Club Central, Trujillo's traditional social club. Although the club continues to be members-only, visitors can tool around for a view of an only slightly dilapidated exclusivity. The two-story mansion, with a large central courtyard, is outfitted with window grilles, thin columns, and Italian marble statues. Upstairs is a small museum containing Moche ceramics. Members in semiformal dress still drop by for lunch or dinner at the club, followed by a game of cards.
The House of the Mayorazgo de Facalá
Conserves one of the more valuable numismatic collections of the Peru
The House Bracamonte
With beautiful patios of the times colonial and republican. In its facade a great carved wood porch shines and the typical forged iron windows
The House Ganoza Chipotea
Of line barroca, is considered the sample most representative of the trujillano architectonic style
The House of Marshal Orbegoso
Is a traditional virreinal house of spotted floors and ample halls ready in a high embankment.
House of the Emancipation
The house of the Emancipation or Madalengoitia, is considered like the civic sanctuary of this city, because from here the Intendant of Trujillo, the Marquess of Tagle Tower, heading a first separatist movement in the year 1820 proclaimed the independence of Peru. This Marquess also had his house in historical Center of Lima|Lima that at the moment is the main seat of Ministry of Outer Relations of the Peru. The house of the Emancipation served like seat as the first constituent congress and house as government as the president Jose as the Riva Omen. The historical monument conserves a series of watercolors of century XVIII.
House Calonge or Casa Urquiaga
Located in the Jr Pizarro 446. Seat of the Central bank of Reserve. She is one marries museum of neoclassic style that conserves the writing-desk of Simón Bolivar, ornamentos of gold Chimú and virreinal and republican furniture.
Archaeological Museum of the National University of Trujillo
Location Casa Risco, Ayacucho St. and Junín St. corner. Attention 08:30 a 14:40 monday to saturday Collections of prehispanic pieces, as ceramic, fabrics, metals; it has a special room on Chan Chan's citadel.
Museum of Juguete
Museo del Juguete, where you will encounter a modest but interesting display of rattlers, whistles, figurines, and other Chancay, Moche, and Chimú toys dating as far back as 1000 BC. Art aficionados should walk over to the gallery next door where you can view paintings by Gerado Chavez, and his lesser-known brother.
Museum of Zoology
Located in the Jr San Martín 368. It exposes diverse species of the own fauna of the region, such as birds, fish, reptiles, insects and camelidaes.
Archaeological Museum Casinelli
Collection of prehispanic pieces of the cultures Recuay, Chavín, Mochica, and Chimú, some od them unique in this gender.
The City of Chan Chan
Capital of the Chimú Kingdom, is one of the best examples of the architectonic level reached about this culture. The city of greater mud of pre-Columbian America is divided in 9 ciudadelas or palaces, forming independent units that extend in a 20 area of km2. When entering and walking among their seats, piramidales houses, deposits, factories, labyrinths, ways and temples, will be able to feel the force and the weather of this town that still remains in the atmosphere and that is also reflected in the scenery in high relief of its walls. UNESCO included it in the list of Cultural Patrimony of the Humanity in 1986 and travelling worldwide they recognize that its grandiosidad only can be compared with the archaeological rest of Teotihuacan (Mexico) or with the old cities of Egypt.
Huaca del Sol (Sun) and Huaca de la Luna (Moon)
Archaeological center of the Mochica culture, located at 13 km. south east of Trujillo, beside the Moche River and very near the town of Moche. They are two pyramidal huacas; built with adobe (made with mud), each piece of adobe has the maker's mark. The "Huaca del Sol" is the biggest, it has 498 m. length, 135 m. width and 48 m. height. It has more than 100 million pieces of adobe accumulated in its construction, the pieces of adobe were also covered with a loamy pasta and they were colored with strong colors that still now are possible to see in some places. These huacas are a sample of the highest technology that the Mochicas had in the art of building. The "Huaca de la Luna", located at 200 m. distance from the "Huaca del Sol, is a little smaller; both were adoration centers of ritual character.
Huaca El Dragón o Arco Iris
Also called "Huaca del Arco Iris" (rainbow), archaeological Chimú center, located at 4 km. north of Trujillo. This huaca, was an adoration temple of ritual character, it belongs to Chan Chan's citadel. Built in adobe, at the moment restored and it is one of the best conserved from the most important huacas of Peru. In their walls beautiful friezes; place museum. Advisable minimum time for your visit two hours and thirty minutes.
Huaca The Emerald
Located in the production cooperative "the Cortijo" to 3 km of the city of Trujillo and to 8 minutes approx. in car. Composed of several superposed terraces to which it is acceded by inclines.
Its name comes from the Mochica word "Huacocha" that means "beautiful lagoon of the golden fishes." Picturesque creek of fishermen and residential spa. Located at 13 km. (8 miles) northwest of Trujillo. During the Colonial age it was the main port of Trujillo. In the high part an old and beautiful church is located, in which the image of the "Virgen del Socorro" is venerated, disembarked in January 1537 by order of the King Carlos V from Spain. It is also conserved since 1707, in an urn, the intact body of Deán Saavedra, considered a miraculous saint.
Province of Ascope
Archaeological Complex "El Brujo" (The Sorcerer)
Archaeological group of the Mochican culture. It is located at 35 Km north of Trujillo and 16 Km from the town of Chocope in the valley of Chicama. Its scientific investigation was initiated newly in 1990, in charge of the "Universidad Nacional de Trujillo" (National University of Trujillo), "Instituto Nacional de Cultura" (National Institute of Culture) with the financial support of an important bank of Peru, Banco Wiese-Sudameris. In this center the Huaca Cao highlights, in pyramidal shape, reaches 30 m height. Its walls are decorated with friezes in colored reliefs with complex representations of scenes, characters, and geometric designs, only case found in the Mochican culture.
Malabrigo or Chicama Port
Located very near Chicama, spa and fishermen's creek. It was of great importance in the Colonial age, and today one of the favorite places for the surf lovers, it has the highest waves in the world; here they have been carried out several international surf championships.
Province of Sanchez Carrion
Located to 14 kilometros of the city of Huamachuco, it is possible to be arrived by a hard road, and also walking; it is an archaeological stone complex elevated in a mountain, of where the extensive thing of the mountain range of the $andes can be descried. This partly surrounded by a wall.
Is located about 2.5 km north of the modern town of Huamachuco. The modern road between Huamachuco and Viracochapampa follows an ancient foot-path. As it leaves Huamachuco it climbs steeply to a pass located on the western slopes of Cerro Sazon and only about 500 m. west of that site.
Province of Santiago de Chuco
Also in the province of Santiago de Chuco, to 183 km to the east of the Trujillos and to 3,039 msnm. They emphasize his thermal baths, whose waters are considered between those of better quality of the country, rich in iron and its temperature exceeds 60ºC. Its beautiful perfumed countryside of eucalyptus and other medicinal plants are ideal to do caminatas.Cascas
The National Reserve of Calipuy
with an area of 64,000 héctareas. Conserve varieties animals, such as the bear of eyeglasses, the deer, the guanaco and the cóndor. Also, puya Raimondi grows there.
Province of Chepen
Chepen Route Crucis
A 139 km aprox. al norte de la ciudad de Trujillo (2 horas en auto aprox.) It is composed by 15 stations that group to 23 statues of natural size, except the last one that measures about 11 meters of height including its base. And to facilitate the access a beach of parking in the skirt of the hill has been constructed, almost to half of way, to where it is possible to be arrived, therefore, in automobile. From there, there is graderías wrought on the rock or seated with cement.
Province of Otuzco
Town of Otuzco
To 75 km approx. to the east of the city of Trujillo (2 hours in car approx.). Colorful city of the mountain range liberteña, of narrow streets and elevated houses, of wide doors and ceilings of roofing tiles. It is surrounded by a beautiful Andean landscape in that they emphasize the gorge of Tupullo, the Pollo river and the hill of the Hermitage. Otuzco very is visited because it lodges the Virgin of the Door, pattern of the place.
Province of Pacasmayo
Church of San Pedro de Lloc
To 82 km approx. to the north of the city of Trujillo (1 hours in car approx.), in the Seat of Arms of the city of San Pedro de Lloc.
Solitaire, exotic and beautiful forest located in the district of San Pedro de Lloc, where the enchantment and the mystery are fed by the power of the nature. This forest of carob trees has prepared for all the visitors able to make a route of almost two hours and average, a cosy landscape, with a shining sun, fresh water, lukewarm sand and of course the experience to share with the friends a day different in company from the nature.
The Complex of Pakatnamu
Located in a plateau elevated between the sea and the valley, Pakatnamu is one of the Chimú sites, Lambayeque and Mochica of greater beauty and extension. This was defendant by two great walls and high precipices, surpassing a 1.5 area of km2. According to the studies it has been determined that this monument arrived at its present form during the Lambayeque period , not being still defined his function, although the evidences make think that it was dedicated to complex ceremonies, including human sacrifices, reason why we would be before a great ceremonial complex.
The Spanish conquerors founded the port of pacasmayo on 1775, constructing a wharf with economicos aims soon. They emphasize the constructions like 1850 the Grace house. In its beaches surf practices and the diving
Province of Viru
The Special Project Chavimochic
The Chavimochic irrigation is a hydraulic work of multiple intentions that uses waters of the river Santa for the irrigation of 144 thousand hectares of valleys of Ciao, Virú, Moche and Chicama, processes potable water in its Planta de Tratamiento of the Moche Stop for the consumption of 70% of the population of the city of the bordering Trujillos and districts and generates hydroelectric energy in its power stations of Virú, Tanguche and the Desarenador, incorporating to hundreds of thousands of Peruvian to the development of the country.
Islands south of Trujillo with large guano deposits.