Archaeological complex Cracked Huaca (Mr. of Sipán), located to 35 kilometers of Chiclayo. Place where priest was discovered in 1987 the intact rest of a dignitary of the mochica hierarchy - soldier. The important discovery is only compared with the finding of the tomb of Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankamón, in 1922. The construction is formed by a low platform and two pyramids of marinate. In the finding one was that the tomb of the dignitary was accompanied of rest of a soldier, a priest, two women, a boy, a flame and a guardian with the amputated feet. In addition to numerous jewels of gold and silver.
The tomb remained closed, protected of the time and the plunderers, by hundreds of years, until a day of 1987 the body of the Gentleman would see the light again. Walter Alva, the Peruvian archaeologist in charge of the excavations, had to feel to galopar his heart when its sensitivity of archaeologist began to feel the proximity of the finding. Nor to speak when she was expensive to face with Mr. de Sipán. Although it is probable that the emotion did not leave long time to think him, knew that the finding was than important more. Nevertheless, it could not as much have imagined what. A tomb of a governor of old Peru, intact, a discovery that has been compared even with the discovery of the tomb of Tutankamón Pharaoh in Egypt.
The tomb is near the town of Sipán, to 35 km of Chiclayo, in the archaeological complex of Cracked Huaca. The archaeological site consists of two pyramids you truncate, constructions in where were meetings Tumba of Mr. de Sipán, Tumba of the Priest and the one of the Old Mr. of Sipán.
The old governor of valleys of the north would have exerted his mandate in year 250 d.C approximately and its authority extended to the military, religious and civilian scope. The constructors of ciudadela of Mr. de Sipán were the Mochicas, who settled down themselves in the region of the Freedom, soon to extend towards valleys of Lambayeque, Chicama, Moche, Virú, Santa and Nepeña, on a 6.500 area of km2. The series of promontories that lodge the rest of old constructions, that can be seen until today, corresponds to the work of these men. According to the archaeologists the complex lodged sometimes to near 15 thousand inhabitants, who included professionals like potters, goldsmiths, weavers and constructors.
The perfection and development that this culture reached surprise the scientists. These men managed to construct their home in one of the most barren places of the planet, designing technical hydraulic that allowed them to canalize waters of the rivers that lower of the $andes, being thus obtained to duplicate the amount of territories of culture which they are used at the present time. Their advances in the art of the metallurgy allowed them to create techniques for the intensive use of copper, specially in the manufacture of ornamentos, arms and tools, obtaining even to gild copper with a sophisticated technique that such obtains results that the electrolytic system invented in Europe just by the end of century XVIII. Also, its realistic and expressive ceramics has allowed the students worldwide to know more about this culture than it obtained a great level of technological development.
Owners of a level of development so advanced, for the Mochicas, the death did not mean a end. The men continued living in another plane with their same obligations or privileges, reason that the finding of this tomb explains because the governors were buried with provisions and goods, and allowed to know more about those rituals interment. Its bones allowed to know that Mr. de Sipán died to an age average of 40 years and that, with exception of incipiente arthritis, enjoyed good health. Its stature would have been of 1,67 cm., discharge for the time and its corpórea structure demonstrates little physical work.
Until before the discovery of the tomb of Mr. de Sipán, one thought that the images of the Mochica art comprised of the mythology of this culture, existing only in the mind of his creators. For that reason, to state that many of the emblems, ornamentos and atuendos seen in the Moche iconography were used by a real personage helped to dissipate many of the doubts about these legendary men of valleys of Lambayeque, as well as of the hierarchy and importance of the Gentleman who rested in that tomb.
The rich treasure of Sipán is made up of pieces that dazzle by their beauty. Tens of objects in gold, silver, receive, turquesa, lapis lazuli, shells of Spondylus, vasijas of ceramics, ornamentos and arms. Some of the most impressive pieces are the necklaces with fruits of gold peanut made and silver, the orejeras with deities and figures done with turquesas.
Also two coxales protectors were (one of gold and another one of silver), on the chest, ready sonajeras of gold in their belt, a ceremonial sceptre with silver grip and in the superior part a pyramid truncates of gold maintained in the right hand. Underneath the body one was located diadema semilunar of gold whose a leaf that measures 62 cm. wide by 42 cm. of height, that single had been seen in the Moche iconography and that always was related to the highest investiture of the governing class. Similarly, one successively was eleven pectoral ones arranged on the chest, the legs and underneath the skeleton, as well as protective of eyes, protector of nose, a mentonera, in addition to a heavy circular massive gold ingot.
The body was buried with the head oriented exactly towards the south, in center of four personages, each one oriented towards a cardinal point, closely together of him it was a dog and three women between the 18 and 21 years of age. In addition, he was accompanied of a priest and food that would serve to him in its transit towards beyond.
The coffin era of cane wood united with vegetal fibers and copper clips. Upon the coffin diverse weave layers existed, esterillas and mantles finely elaborated, located in different layers, which reveals the complex elaborated thing and of the funeral ceremony. Once arranged the burial seventeen carob tree wood beams were located covering all the tomb. On the beams was the body of a guardian with the amputated legs, which would symbolize the obligation to remain for always in its sentry post.
The Old Mr. of Sipán, buried in the first stage of construction of the funeral platform, had to be the oldest governor of the valley. Many of the rank emblems and control or ornamentos and standards of his ajuar funeral, are similar to those from Mr. de Sipán, which reflects a similar hierarchy and roll at another moment of Mochica history. Evidently, it could be his predecessor in some generations. Ajuar with diverse religious images is more varied complex and than the one from the first discovered Gentleman. Probably, the Old Gentleman, concentrated the political and religious functions that separated later. Their only companions were a woman and a flame. The ornamentos deposited in the tomb also are referred to a triple authority (civilian, religious and military) and to the concepts of the dualismo symbolized by the use of gold and the silver.
After an extensive tour by the world, Mr. de Sipán returned to house with great honors. The most modern museum of Peru was constructed in Lambayeque, with the purpose of lodging all the found treasures and to be the final dwelling of the legendary Gentleman. The Museum Real Tombs is a modern building in pyramid form. The entrance becomes by an incline of 70 meters in length. The transit by the incline simulates the ascent of the settlers moches to a veneration temple. In first stage is the reconstruction of the main tomb, where the true bony rest rest. In the second floor the ornamentos of Mr. de Sipán in gold are exhibited, silver and receives. Around the museum a Moche town of the time has reconstructed itself, recreating its techniques of elaboration of ceramics and spinning, that without a doubt will overwhelm the interest with any visitor.
A visit by these warm valleys of the north of Peru will manage, without a doubt, to approach it the history of one of the most important governors of this part of the country and to make it witness of the wonderful cultural patrimony that Mr. de Sipán and his culture have bequeathed for the coming generations.
In 1987 the archaeologist Walter Alba and his equipment discovered in the deposit of Cracked Huaca (Peru), a funeral mausoleo with diverse tombs of mochica culture (200 - 900 a. C). The finding of the “Mr. of Sipán” has been considered like the American Tutankamon.
At the beginning of 1987, the organized bands proliferated in Peru that were dedicated to the sacking of tombs. In a routine registry, the police seized several objects of great beauty and precision. The Dr Walter Alba (archaeologist and director of the Museum Brüning de Lambayque, Peru) recognized those figurillas carved in gold of 22 carats, like pertaining to the mochica culture.
The archaeologist went with his equipment to the deposit of Cracked Huaca, in the Peruvian north, place where it seemed to have produced the robbery. Moches or mochicas had inhabited the zone about 1700 years back.
The platform supposedly sacked was two old religious temples in front of. Thence still rest of houses and stone fortifications were descried that protected the enclosure. The indications that were of the irrigation channels, revealed the use of agriculture, main means of mochica subsistence.
The mochica art the ceramics were known that delicately represented carved human heads and great realism. The paintings revealed daily scenes and ceremonies, supposedly mitológicas, of human sacrifices. The finding that was about to to come, would demonstrate that the mochicas scenery was not product of the fiction.
The team of Walter Alba found the tomb sacked. Before the general surprise it appeared, in addition to a sceptre, a great amount of ceramics, and another sealed tomb.
The magnitude of the discovery could not still be predicted when the excavations began. Four copper crowns, 1500 vasijas and other ornamentos of gold, silver and receives, preceded the finding of the deceased, call since then “Mr. de Sipán”.
The artistic and technological development of the pieces surprised the archaeologists who worked to unearth the set. That man must have had a great wealth and social importance.
They had been pending, pectoral, sonajeros and a sceptre finished off in a knife, used surely to execute to the prisoners before libar its blood. The corpse of the Gentleman carried a massive gold mask like subjection to the chin, but the archaeological adventure did not end this valuable discovery that had thrown to the light objects of incalculable value.
In the funeral camera they appeared several human skeletons. One was the sacrificed séquito of the governor, buried in simple sarcófago of wood surrounded by copper strips.
The deceased was accompanied by a guardian of about 20 years of age, whose feet had been amputated. A crew member, two women and a boy completed the human group. The women presented/displayed the same amputation, surely so that they did not leave his gentleman. The young one was the symbol of the regeneration of the life, which is not strange, given the conception of the mochica world.
For this town, everything had two opposite and complementary faces. The gold represented the sun and the day, and the silver symbolized the moon and the night. Of the same form their Gods were men and animals simultaneously. For that reason also were rest animals between the sacrifices of the tomb.
In the process excavatorio six constructive stages of the funeral platform were identified. Moches was enlarging and elevating the levels of the sanctuary according to ritual the funeral necessities and, reason why it suspected that there were more tombs.
And thus it was. Under the one of Mr. de Sipán and at a following level, was the tomb of the call “Priest” accompanied by a “Guerrero”. In the first level were the rest of the oldest grave, “the Old Mr. of Sipán”, four generations previous to the “Mr. of Sipán”, but probably of he himself rank.
Its finding, with smaller number of human offerings, details and sacrifices, suggested a change in the funeral and religious customs of the mochica town throughout the time, as well as a progressive consolidation of the political power.
True "The Gilded one"
Tons of gold, silver and receive gilded were extracted by the profanadores of tombs of the real burials of Great Fulling mill, Sipán and other sites of Lambayeque. Later investigations demonstrated that the territory between the Piura rivers and jequetepeque was one of the cradles of the Andean metallurgy.
Preindustrial states like the Moche that even formed regional señoríos to the arrival of the Spaniards were initiators of the systems of irrigation on great scale and inventors of almost all the metallurgical techniques of old Peru.
Chiclayo, capital of the department, is located to 1 hour in airplane and between 8 and 10 hours in car (763 km) of the city of Lima, following the North Pan-American highway. The climate of the region is warm, with more of 20º Cs of annual average temperature, maximum superior to 30ºC in summer and absolute minims over 15º C in winter.
First of the tombs of the gentlemen of Sipán, found in 1987 in Huaca Cracked by Walter Alva and other archaeologists of the Museum of Brüning, it was considered at its moment like the more important world-wide archaeological discovery of the last quarter of century, comparable with the finding of the tomb of Tutankhamon in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt.
The evidences on the funeral rituals indicate, unequivocally, that the society moche strongly was stratified, with defined political and religious rolls good. The maximum representatives of the governing elite used to be priests (Huaca of the Moon), priests administrators (Huaca de la Cruz), princess priestesses (San jOse de Moro) or soldiers (Sipán). In Sipán, the number of bodies that accompany the main burial, the wealth of atuendos and gold adornments, as well as of vasijas ofrendadas, does not leave place to doubt as far as the position of the deceased in the peak of the social pyramid. Great turni or ceremonial knife in form of average moon, moored in the belt or turned the main adornment of the helmet, the bells, the orejeras and the narigueras counts between the attributes of the head soldier. On the other hand, the sceptre whose inferior extremity is transformed into tumis, the symbol of the power on the life and the death of the subjects. Sonaja put in the top of the sceptre has a repujado relief that represents the capture of an overcome soldier who soon will be sacrificed.
The body of the governor was deposited upon a wood platform. Repujadas gold plates whose forms faithfully repeated the contour of the eyes, the nose and the chin covered the face of late, a made oval gold ingot was in its right hand and another one of silver in its left hand. The symbolic opposition between gold and the silver repeats in the case of the sceptres and adornments of atuendo of the head the soldier, probably symbolizing its dominion on two halves of the kingdom, the one that is compared of metafórica way with the dominions of the Sun (masculine) and the Moon (feminine).
The bottom of sarcófago, whose wood elements were united with copper moorings, is covered by a layer with tropical shells (Spondylus sp. and Conus sp.) which they come from warm waters of Ecuador and by some games of ceremonial dresses, between which they emphasize necklaces of human, modeled in repujado and túnicas gold heads covered of gilded copper plates, to armor way.
The platform with the body was placed on this undercoat of offerings and soon covered with several levels of ceremonial dresses. Each game of dresses, aside from the textiles, was made up of pectoral facts of thousands of per them - chaquiras, necklaces of gold and silver with forms of human heads, peanuts, spiders and rays, of a pair of orejeras of gold and great narigueras, of figurative elements of copper and gold applied to the helmet or the moored dress and of sonajascascabeles to the waist, next to the protector coxa.
Once deposited at heart by the camera, the oficiantes surrounded sarcófago main of other cane facts that contained the bodies of individuals while still alive related to the governor, some by which had passed away months or years before he. The bodies of the women were deposited in inverse sense to the one of the men, alongside opposed of sarcófago main. Near this one habia a place for the body of the flame, which very frequently one imagines like means of transport of rank deads. The niches in the walls were filled of offerings ceramics, pitchers and bottles with forms in their majority anthropomorphous. It is not known if it is that these containers contained chicha of jora (maize beer) or human blood and of sacrificed animals. Some of the found secondary burials in the camera belong more likely to crew members, to those who it was forced to them to accompany to the gentleman in his trip beyond.
In 1990, near the place, it is discovered two tombs more, those of the Old call Mr. of Sipán and the one of the Priest. The platform of you marinate, leaned to two monumental pyramids (well-known as Cracked Huaca) periodically was extended of similar way that the temples, and probably with he himself aim to renew the magical power of the enclosure. Doubt, therefore, that does not fit the platform, in use between centuries V and I SAW D.C., constituia a place of collective grave of several generations of Mochica governors, surrounded by burials of other personages related to the power.