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De:
Maria Hernandez
Enviado:
Martes, 10 julio del 2012, 18:33 hrs.
Sr. Dante Valenzuela Mi esposo Pablo y yo Maria Alejandra quisieramos agradecerle a usted y a todo el personal de su agencia todas las atenciones, la calidez humana, buena organizacion y profesionalismo que hicieron de nuestro viaje al Peru una experiencia inolvidable. El cumplimiento en el itinerario fue muy puntual, los tours y los guias fueron maravillosos, la informacion que recibimos ........

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Lago Titicaca - Puno - Peru
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TITICACA LAKE



USEFULL DATE

The man always has tried to narrate what of waters of the Titicaca it has not been possible to take. They tell that under their surface abundant gold cities and silver exist, but not yet they have been possible to find. They say that in their waters sirens live on sweet and mortal song. The certain thing is that trouts of exceptional flavor grow there. And many, many legend more, than if they are not certain, at least entertain all one night.

To the Titicaca they upper called the lake to him of the world. Then, after being disapproved, they described to him like “navigable”. Later to only return to rectify. One has said that it does not have bottom, but the modern instruments until a measurement have given him. And for that they need exact numbers, here we give some data him, of precise and worldly it.
This lake is in the Andean plateau, in the border between Peru and Bolivia. The surface includes about 9000 square kilometers and rests to about 3800 meters on the level of the sea. Its Maxima depth is considered to be of about 460 meters. Sure all these measures increase according to the ferocidad of rains. The present lake is a very small portion of which once it was an immense sea.


It is known several cultures that by many years lived in the regions of the stops You walk. At least two of these managed to reach the degree of empires, to which we will call civilizations less to be criticized. The civilization of Tiwanaku and the very well-known one of the Incas. Two religious towns extremely but also advanced. The interesting thing is that in mythology both the genesis with their leaders appears arising from waters of the Titicaca lake. Very possible that it is really a sacred lake.


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Hotels in Puno


For the become fond of tourist, one does not worry you who already part of this enchantment well is commercialized. There are boats and boats of all types and sizes. There are boats that sail on skis and are constructed others of grass since they did them hundreds ago of years. Also there are hotels with saunas and restaurants serving delights by plates. Visit Pan-American Restauran in Huatajata and deal with the dish of marinated raw fish and trout the lake.

They say that in winter, in the month of August, storms in the lake happen. We were in March of the 2001 after an abundant season of rain. The Titicaca was grown, its waters covering beyond its usual limits. Even so, we could enjoy and visit everything what the way indicated to us.

The Titicaca is something very special. Surrounded by mountains, some snow-covered; of between their waters islands rise that are not more than other tips in the mountain range. In these islands it is where the magic happens, according to they count the legend.

At all costs try to arrive until the Island of the Sun. We do not know all its history but we are sure that are more extensive and colorful of which they count. At least it is going to find a spring of three sources. One does not worry to look for it, to all the tourists take to us until there. To the spring that we talked about they call the Source to him of Youth. According to the story of the guides, that takes water from him rejuvenece 10 years. To us it does not interest to us to rejuvenecer nor a day, but the water was so much that flowed that by absurd that sounds, we will say that was one of the sources that insisted. Respect we drank yet and all it was to us of wonder.


Aditional dates
The Titicaca lake is the greatest lake [1] of the greatest South America and of the world over the 2,000 ms of altitude, in addition the navigable lake is upper. Peruvian-Bolivian to about 3,800 meters on the level of the sea is located in the plateau. Its Maxima depth esteem surpasses the 281 meters. These measures increase according to rains.


Extension

Lago Titicaca measures 204 km in length by 65 km wide, occupying 8,562 km ², of which 4,772 km ² correspond to Peru and 3,790 km ² to Bolivia. This located to a height of 3,810 meters on the level of the sea, to this height, due to the purity of the air, the lake is particularly transparent (of 15 to 65 ms) and the quality of the light is exceptional; the mountains that seem to be closely together, are to 20 or 30 km of the lake. The color of its waters is blue. A day is needed at least to cross it in boat.

Geographic location
Located in a zone shared by Peru and Bolivia, this navigable lake is distinguished by the great dimensions that it has: an approximated surface of 8.490 km2 and one depth of 280 meters.

In his border it lodges par excellence to the folkloric capital of Peru, the city of Puno. Founded on 1666, its population is of 60.000 of origin mainly Aymara, but preservative of the Spanish legacy in its artistic and cultural expressions. The population that lives around the lake mainly dedicates to the fishing and the crafts, being characteristic of the zone the totora canoes, more known like “totora ponies”.

The waters of the lake reunite 36 islands altogether, being within the Peruvian territory the greatest islands of the Uros, Taquile and Amanti. The lake has a Bolivia and positioning system that maintains in contact to Peru by boats that unite the Peruvian port of Puno with the Bolivian city of Huaqui.

In 1978 the reserve of Lago Titicaca was created, with the purpose of conserving its flora and wild fauna as well as the beauty of its landscapes. In this reserve, 60 varieties of birds, 14 species of original fish of the lake and 18 species of amphibians have been found, between which they are the giant frog of the Titicaca that can arrive even though up to 3 Kilograms.

The ideal time to visit the lake is between May and October, since the days are sunnier and the changes of temperature are not so abrupt. The temperature average of that time is of 25°C. although during the nights, the temperatures are usually under 0°C. throughout the year.

One of the forms easiest to accede to the lake is by means of a flight to the city of Juliaca, that one hour of the city of Puno has left. From it will be able there to travel to the nautical means islands diverse of transport. Another form to arrive is by land, crossing 416 km from Cuzco to Puno.

Climate
The climate of Lago Titicaca is extreme, with great variations of temperature between the day and the night. The ideal season to visit it is between May and October, time at which the days are sunny, very rare rains and the diurnal temperature reaches 25° C. The nights are always you cold.

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ATTRACTIVES

Established by the Peruvian government in 1978, the main objectives of the National Reserve of the Titicaca are to conserve the flora, fauna and the attractive landscape of Lago Titicaca; to preserve the natural resources like the totora, that lodges a great diversity of species; to support the socioeconomic development of the bordering populations by means of the rational use of the resources of wild flora and fauna; and to foment the local tourism without disturbing the cultural traditions of the human groups that live in the zone.

The reserve is divided in two sectors. Ramis (in the provinces of Huancane and Ramis) and Puno (Puno). It has a total area of 36.180 hectares, within which they are protected more than 60 species of birds, between migratory residents and. They emphasize the zambullidor of the Titicaca (Centropelma micropterum), the yanavico (Plegadis ridgwayi), they will cormoran (Phalacrocorax olivaceus) and the totorero (Phleocryptes melanops). Between the resident families we have ducks (Anatidae) and you hit (Rallidae), whereas of the migratory families are chorlos (Charadriidae), playeros (Scolopacidae) and flamenco (Phoenicopte-ridae). The Reserve also protects some species threatened like the flamenco parihuana or (Phoenicopterus chilensis), flamenco of James (Phoenicoparrus jamesi) and flamenco the Andean (Phoenicoparrus andinus).
The waters of the lake have a great ictiologica wealth counting on four different families from fish. Only of the Orestias sort 40 species have been identified. The villagers use the species like carachis (Orestias spp.), pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis), rows (Leporinus obtusidens) and suche (Trychomicterus rivulatum) like protein source. Between the amphibians 18 native species have been registered, honoring the giant toad of the Titicaca (Telmatobius ssp.) and the common toad (Comic spinulosus). The species of mammals that inhabit in the Reserve, predominating the rodents like vizcacha (Lagidium peruanum) and the wild guinea pig are few (Cavia tschudii). The Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus) also can be seen in the environs.

The flora of the lake is represented by 12 varieties of aquatic plants emphasizing the yana llacho (Elodea potamogeton), the water lentil (Lemna sp.) and purima (Chara sp.). The Reserve also protects more than 64 sorts of terrestrial flora ribereña. However, more representative species in the Titicaca does not exist that the totora (totora Schoenoplectus), its abundant presence in the margins of the lake has served so that the settlers almost use it for everything, from construction of canoes and houses, to elaboration of utensils and feeding of the cattle.

There are boats and boat of all types and sizes. Boats exist that sail on skis and are constructed others of totora grass, calls totora rafts or “totoritas” or ponies of totora since they also did them three thousand years ago at the preincaica time and during the incaico empire as much in this zone as in the Peruvian coast.
Also there are hotels with saunas and restaurants where the ample variety of the gastronomy of Peru and Bolivia can be appreciated. They emphasize plates of ceviche and trout of the lake.
One is a place where cultural tourism becomes and of adventure.

It is the navigable lake that has the greater height throughout the world. The boat that is seen in the photo was bought in Europe, was engaged in disassembled, on the back of donkey, from the coast of the Pacific, and again was armed in the lake. Still it works and it does tourist excurciones by the lake, arriving until Guaqui, the port in Bolivia, next to Drainage.

Leged lake Titicaca
Long ago, the Titicaca lake was a fertile valley populated with men who lived happy and calm.
Nothing they needed; the Earth was rich and it tried everything to them what they needed. On this earth one knew neither the death, nor hatred, nor the ambition. The Apus, the Gods of mountains, protected the human beings.
They did not prohibit them more than a single thing: nobody had to raise the top of mountains where the Sacred Fire burned.
During long time, the men did not think about infringing this order of the Gods. But the devil, malignant spirit condemned to live in the dark, did not support to see the men live so calmly in the valley.
He talent to divide to the men seeding the discord.
It requested to them to prove his anger being gone to look for the Sacred Fire the top of mountains.
Then good day, to the dawn, the men began to scale the top of mountains, but halfway they were surprised by the Apus.
These included/understood that the men had disobeyed and decided to exterminate them. Thousands of pumas left the caverns and they devoured the men who suplicaban to the devil by aid. But this one remained insensible to its pleas.
Seeing that, Inti, the God of the Sun, it was put to cry. Their tears were so abundant that in forty days they flooded the valley.
A man and a woman only got to be saved on a rush boat.
When the sun shone again, the man and the woman did not believe to their eyes: under the blue and pure sky, they were in the middle of an immense lake. In the middle of those waters they floated pumas that were drowned and transformed into stone statues.
They called then to the Titicaca lake, the lake of pumas of stone.

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OTHERS ATTRACTIVENESS

This immense lake counts on 36 islands (most of inhabited them). Isla Taquile, is the one that emphasizes in the Peruvian side for being the one of greater extension (6 km2). It is located to 35 kilometers to the east of the city of Puno and within their territory are important vestiges of the cultures Tiahuanaco and Inca. Nevertheless, the characteristic that excellent in this island is the way of life of its inhabitants, based on the famous moral code of the Incas, Master Sua (you do not rob), Master Quella (you do not lie) and Master Llulla (you are not loose). Not to fulfill some of these “laws” could mean to be punished, even, with the exile.

Perhaps many of us we would ask ourselves because to follow laws so old. For the taquileños the answer is very simple - because always they have worked. This town that seems catched in the time receives tasteful to those who wish to visit it and to know something more about how their customs and values have known to survive modernity.
But that is not the only surprise that keeps waters from the lake. To six kilometers of the port of Puno is an impressive archipelago of 40 islands of totora, lived by the Community of the Uros. Men and women who are called to themselves “kot-suña” (“the Town of the Lake”), that implies that by its veins black blood runs, that cannot suffocate and that does not feel cold. That would be, also, the reason of its good fortune in the fishing according to explain proud. The Uros has constructed their islands with totora mats, each one of which is inhabited among 30 and 50 people who live on the artisan fishing and the tourism. Although their settlers have obtained accustomed to the cold climate and dry, this he manages to attenuate thanks to the action of the masses of water that evaporate constantly warming up the atmosphere somehow.

Legacy Inca
At the present time, according to data given by census of the INEI-Peru of 1993, 300.000 people would exist who speak the original language Aymara, Jaqaru, of which the majority is in the city of Puno, Monquegua and Tacna, and that is not to be strange.
According to the old legend Inca, from the depths of Lago Titicaca they emerged Able Manco and Occllo Breast, founders of the pre-Columbian empire, today this layenda could become in fact.
An expedition made by experts between days 14 and 25 of October, discovered the ruins and rest of which would be one ciudadela Inca hidden in the abysses of the lake. To 8 meters of depth of the lake, the divers managed to appreciate perfectly fitted stone walls with others, very similar to the found ones in Machu Pichu. Within the submarine city, also was a stone platform with figures ceramics, that agree with the places of offerings of the sacred sites.
The expedition also would have given with a structure of rocky formation that excels of the water with 20 meters of diameter and up to three meters of height. On this one, it would have appeared a stony statue in form of flame, a native animal of the Andes, characteristic of the Peruvian mountain range.

City sunk in the lake Titicaca
In August of this year a team of Brazilian, Italian and Bolivian scientists submerged in the depths of the Titicaca lake in search of vestiges of one old one you take care of submerged. The finding not only remecio the Andean theories, but that also revivio the old myth of the Atlantis.
And although for the members of the equipment this he is one of the most important discoveries for the Andean world, does not have been remote of the controversy. South American scientists prefer to wait for conclusions based on more rigorous procedures.
In the year 2000 nine scientists of this group of investigators beat a record of diving when submerging to 5,000 meters of height in the lagoon of Chilata. In that opportunity, they also opened a controversy, since they said to have found rest of a culture pre Inca submerged in the Titicaca.
The group belonged to Akakor, an Italian cultural association, and two years later, in August of the 2002, the expedition “Geographical Exploring Bolivia Akakor” returned to the place to verify if what was seen submerged years back they were indeed ways and launching slips.
What only began as an investigation on the effects in the human body to dive in height finished but that talking about to an archaeological discovery, that not only it brought indications of a greater investigation, revivia the myths that during years had been coined around the place. What it seemed a story of old began to be certain.
In some deep place the Island of the Sun was united with Copacabana and there were the rest of a civilization that now completely was submerged under the Titicaca. Lorenzo Epis, leader of the expedition, in interview with CTN: “In my particular point of view the expedition will be remembered by the result of 20 technicians in 20 days of work. The great discoveries that we will write in the small official history of archaeology Inca”.
Two theories motivated them. One to demonstrate talked about to the hypothesis sustained by the mission on the depth of the lake; the other, raised that it makes five thousand years the Island of the Sun was a stuck peninsula to earth and that underneath the waters that surround it rest of great civilizations could exist.
For the president of the Chilean Society of Archaeology, Mauricio Uribe, in the case of the Titicaca is quite important to investigate the ascents and reductions of the levels of the lake. He clarified for CTN that “is a form to measure like have occurred the climatic changes in the time which they have affected the form of the flora, the fauna and the humanity in general. It is a quite important area because it is an environmental marking registry and of great importance.”
Thus, the undertaken thing for four years today already has been gathering its fruits. A month ago the 18 scientists of the mission discovered in the lake structures that presume the existence of an organized civilization of approximately 5,000 years of antiquity. To 70 meters or more of depth the subaqueous robotico equipment of the mission managed to photograph vasijas of ceramics, idolo of gold, structures, and what they are conceited they would be retaining walls.
Nevertheless, according to the Chilean archaeologist, Castro Victory, around the lake diverse myths have been created. It is a zone sagrada for all the Andean towns, reason why he is not strange to find objects that were thrown to the Titicaca as a offering. “The history of the submerged city that would be the origin of our humanity has been existing for very many years. In fact they locate it from the triangle of the Bermuda to he himself Titicaca, but he is only that, a myth.”
For Epis however, the expedition meant much more that that. “This expedition was fantastic under all the points of view: from archaeology to the immersions, from the relation of friendship with the people of the place to the fantastic landscape of the $andes”, it said to CTN.

In search of the Atlantic
In the times of Greek wise person Solon, already it was listened to about the collapse of an island located towards the west whose civilization was extraordinarily outpost. Two hundred years later Plato spoke of her locating it near the Columns of Hercules. Atlantis was called, the lost continent and its earth would have sunk between years 1,500 and 8,000 before Christ.
The myth grew throughout history and were the thousand men who fascinated themselves with the legend. It is as well as the location of the Atlantis has changed infinity of times. A Jesuit priest of Kirchner last name located in 1665 the lost continent between Spain and America, in the Atlantic Ocean. The columns of Hercules would correspond to the Straits of Gibraltar and apparently this data is the one that more convinces the present investigators.
In addition, old legend relates that between centuries XII and I a.C was impossible to move away by sea of Europe, since enormous masses of mud floated in the middle of the ocean. According to the stories, these came from the cataclysm that sank the Atlantis. But, for the experts, this “oceanic mud” would be pumice stone originated by volcanic irruptions.
Nevertheless most skeptical before this history they discard the veracity of the sayings of Plato since this one used to educate through nonreal histories that could be or. Most of the contemporary historians and philosophers they maintain that one was an invention to sustain its political ideas more. This it is the point that makes doubt, will have listened to it really or will have invented the legend?
This vasija hallò to five meters of depth. It is presumed that it corresponds to an amazonian ethnic group. (Qechuanetwork.org)
The history of sunk islands, of lost civilizations is not only part of the popular culture and of finders of treasures, but that also sometimes it has managed to seduce scientists. Even, many of them have related some of these cities to the Atlantis. Thus Patricia Nuñez explained to CTN the Peruvian historian: “There are some who can associate this story to other colombinos myths pre, in special to which she counts the history of a civilization that lived in the Titicaca which it had been prohibited to raise him mountains, but when transgressing the norm was punished by the Gods.”
It more seems to be the show of means with respect to the myth that the veracity that gives the experts to this history. He himself Epis says on the matter: “When somebody finds a discovery mysterious, it is spoken of the continent disappear, but before speaking of Atlantis, we like to speak of a preincaica civilization”, affirmed.
A sea of doubts
Nevertheless although the finding hit to the press, the scientific community has stayed cautious. The first time that the Akakor equipment investigated the lake in its expedition “Atahuallpa 2000”, to the world which they had discovered, among other things, liticas figures, terraces, vasijas of submerged style tiwanacota and templete preincaico in waters of the Titicaca, in addition to a retaining wall of 700 meters in length.
But the day after the announcement the expedition went without leaving no photographic or audio-visual test of its finding. From then, the national specialists began to question the credibility of the scientists. In addition she accused herself to them of not taking into account the discoveries from previous expeditions that already had detected rest in waters of the lake.

You knew what?
The Titicaca is the rest of a older lake, than it has been backing down until his present extension. During its history the lake has undergone many alterations. In the last 11 000 years there is this or up to 50 ms under the present level, with salt waters, v just leaks 3 600 years became sweet and it recovered the connection between greater lake and the minor. Between last the 2000 and 1000 years the lake acquires its present state and its efluente, the Drainage forms.
In the islands the uros live, a human group that constructs totora islands and it is fed on products of the lake. The aquatic plants (llachu and totora) and the fish widely are taken advantage of by them.


 

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